Sultan Hassan Mosque is one of the extraordinarily wonderful Islamic Monuments In the Islamic World. If Ancient Egypt is proud of the Pyramids of Giza, Islamic Egypt has to be proud of the Sultan Hassan Madrassa. It was built in 1356 AD and the work continued for 4 years. Mosque-Madrassa of Sultan Hassan is one of the masterpieces of Mamluk architecture.
The founder of this gigantic monument is the Sultan Hassan, son of the great Mamluke Sultan Al-Nasser Mohamed Ibn Qalawoun. Sultan Hassan ruled twice, the first time in 1347, when he was 13 years old, only to be dethroned by the other Mamluke princes and generals. The second time was in 1356A.D, and before he had time to put an end to the power of the princes and high officials, they revolted against him, and the chief of the army with other generals attacked him. It said that he escaped from the Citadel and hid in Cairo; but he was found and imprisoned, never to be seen again! Most probably he was murdered 16 years after his ascension to the throne. Either way, he left 10 sons and 6 daughters.
The Sultan Hassan gave order for the construction of this Madrassa to be under the supervision of Prince Mohamed Ibn Baylik Al-Muhssani in 1361A.D, and the work continued for 4 years. The Mosque was almost complete when Sultan Hassan disappeared or was killed. It was finished by one of his functionaries whose name was Bashir Al-Gamdar. The site of the Madrassa was previously known as Souk Al-Khayl or the Horses Market. The Madrassa was built of stones, but some internal parts and details were built of bricks, faced with stones.
The Madrassa-Mosque was built according to the cruciform, an open courtyard surrounded by 4 iwans. It contains 4 Madrassas or religious schools and is 7,906 square metres big. It is very distinguishable due to its many sides. It has 4 facades, the most important being the 2 main facades.
The most remarkable faï¿½ade is the northeast one. It is 145m long and 38m tall! Its shear wall has 4 pairs of windows set vertically, and at the top of the wall is a massive cornice of 5 layers of stalactites, projecting about 1.5m.
The Sahn, or the court, of the Mosque is almost square, about 34m long and 32m wide, with a large ablution fountain in the centre, which is covered with a wooden dome, carried on 8 marble columns around its capital decorated with a band of inscriptions of The Qur'an (the verse of Al-Kursi). At each corner of the sahn is a door that leads to one of the 4 Madrassas (schools); the biggest one being the Hanafiyya Madrassa, which occupies an area of 898 square metres.
The quibla iwan is the biggest of the 4 iwans of the Mosque. In its wall, 2 windows in recesses, and an oculus above the mihrab, the pointed-arched mihrab is fine, and covered with marble, and there are small double columns supporting the frame with complex joggled voussoirs.